Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities (notably cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis) and other secondary manifestations (nutritional deficits, body composition) which diversifies the clinical presentation.
Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs.
Positive outcomes in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are well known and widely implemented as standard care across the world.
However, The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients.