Despite the issues with the quality of the existing studies, there are still important takeaway messages from this review:
- Wait-and-see approaches should be avoided;
- Education and physical treatments seem more likely to have a positive effect;
- The effects of exercise may not be as region-specific as normally assumed.
The fact that education showed the biggest association with pain improvement and that the effects of exercise were not region-specific highlight the chronicity of PFP and the positive psychosocial effects of both these interventions.
Another advantage of this study is that it is a living review, which means that it can be updated when new evidence arises. For a more detailed overview of the findings, the full version of this review is available through open access.