A combination of education and exercise, orthoses, taping, or mobilisation is the best option to achieve improvement of patellofemoral pain (PFP) after three months. At twelve months however, none of the analysed treatments has significant additional benefit when added to education alone. There is not enough evidence to recommend any particular treatment modality over another at this time point. Nevertheless, all modalities are superior to a wait-and-see approach. These conclusions are drawn by an international research group after conducting an extensive systematic review.