Coordination of foot muscles during walking

Are the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles coordinated when walking?

During walking, the human foot undergoes complex deformations due to both active muscles and passive tissues. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether muscles that contribute towards flexion/extension of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are activated synchronously to regulate joint impedance, or sequentially to perform distinct biomechanical functions. The following study analysed the coordination of MTP flexors and extensors with respect to each other, and to other ankle-foot muscles.


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