Participants were screened by a.o. the Roland-Morris Disability questionnaire (RMDQ, primary outcome measure), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and the Motor Control Abilities Questionnaire (MCAQ). Furthermore, they were sub-classified for movement control impairment (MCI). The MCI test consists of three tests for flexion control, three for extension control and one for rotation and side flexion control.
The general exercise (GE) and specific movement control exercise (SMCE) groups were taught the exercises and advised on the intensity of performance by a physical therapist. Exercise intensity progressed over 5 sessions; each session lasted 45 minutes and included 10 to 15 minutes of manual therapy. Exercise intensity progression continued for five treatments sessions.
In the GE group, home exercises were performed three times a week during the intervention and follow-up period. In the SMCE group, home exercises were performed three times a week and, additionally, the sitting, four-point kneeling and standing exercises once or twice daily.