Recommendations for PFPS treatments from the International Patellofemoral Research Retreat were reviewed. The following were interventions can be recommended: manual therapy for soft tissue mobilisations and trigger point dry needling. Further reviewing of the literature also supported the use of foot orthotics in case of overpronation of the foot, which can lead to patellar sheering. Therapeutic exercises – such as stretches for the hip flexors, tensor fascia lata and quadriceps, and strengthening of the hip abductors and external rotators – were also recommended.
PT has similar presentations as PFPS and correct differential diagnosis is critical for the treatment to be effective. Treatment must focus on strengthening of the quadriceps, the gastroc-soleus complex, as well as the hip muscles. Eccentric and isometric exercises should also be considered as part of the exercise therapy. On the other hand, reviewing of running strategies is also recommended as individuals with PT may land with a stiffer knee, and not sufficiently utilise hip flexion. Manual therapy (cross friction massage) may be beneficial, but not more so than therapeutic exercises. Ultrasound is not beneficial, but infrapatellar strapping may have some proprioceptive benefits.
ITBFS treatments include foam rolling of the ITB, as well as stretching of the ITB complex. Therapeutic exercises were recommended; there should be a focus on strengthening the hip abductors to counteract the adduction pull of the leg through running stride. Further reviewing of running strategies is also recommended.