The studies included in this review showed high heterogeneity, but this may not be entirely surprising given the wide range of populations affected by NSCLBP and the variety of studies and interventions published on this topic.
Nevertheless, the network meta-analysis carried out by these authors provides valuable information. Once again, conclusions lead us in the direction of active exercise treatment and away from therapist-driven care and passive modalities.
While this information is not novel, this review sheds some light on what active treatments should be avoided and that the most effective modalities share the fact that they encourage activity and are guided and progressive.
Although this was not the focus of this review, we can speculate that these forms of exercise were more effective not only by improving physical qualities but also for their effect on mood and self-efficacy, which are decisive factors in CLBP.