In this multicentre RCT, 170 music students were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group.
In the experimental group, a biopsychosocial course tailored specifically for music students was provided, with education about anatomy, physiology, body posture, means to cope with stress and overcommitment, general health (for example, physical activity and nutrition) and how to deal with pain. Motivation, awareness and implementation tools were also given to music students, based on the I-Change Model. This course was scheduled over a full academic year and was divided into eleven sessions, with a total time of eighteen hours and a maximum of eight participants per session.
In the control group, general education and recommendations about physical activity were given, with monitoring of their daily physical activity and instructions to walk 10,000 steps a day as recommended by international physical activity guidelines for the general population. They also had to set goals for physical activity, but no attempts were made to induce any long-term behavioural changes. The programme was divided into five classes, with a total time of investment of eighteen hours as well as students had to practice on their own time. The maximum number of participants per session was sixteen.
The main outcome measures used in this study were disability (assessed through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), the Pain and Disability Index, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36, for quality-of-life) and a questionnaire about health behaviour change tailored for the aim of this study. Other variables were also assessed (eating habits, depression, stress and anxiety, perfectionism). Additional demographic data were collected at baseline (sociodemographic, playing related, general health and personal variables). The total duration of follow-up was two years.