Review of hybrid exoskeletons to restore gait following spinal cord injury.
This is part two of the summary by Miranda posted monday september two.
Hybrid Exoskeletons Controlled by Active Joint Actuators These allow control of power delivered to joint.
- Hybrid Assistive System: Driven by a motor and drum brake this system provides powered and controlled extension and flexion. Dorsiflexion is spring controlled. 6 FES channels allow for knee, hip & ankle dorsiflexion. A trial showed limited duration improved gait.
- Hybrid Powered Orthosis: Hip and knee joints are controlled by actuators. The controls are in the front of the device, allowing easy sitting. FES is included, but it is possible to walk without, therefore limiting fatigue. However, this system does not discriminate stance and swing phase.
-Walk Trainer: This controls all the joints through FES, is coupled with motorised wheels to assist walking. This is designed to minimise interaction forces by modulating muscle stimulation.
Many challenges still remain. The authors summarise that effective closed-loop control of FES will enable implementation of real-time strategies to manage muscle performance. Assistance-needed control strategies must be implemented to work in parallel with the human musculoskeletal system. Clear clinical trials are needed and users should perform walking in real life environments. > From: del-Ama et al., J Rehabil Res Dev 49 (2012) 497-514. All rights reserved to Springer-Verlag.
The free full text article can be found here.