Recent research provides new insights regarding central sensitization, peripheral sensitization, neuroplasticity, glial cell activation, cytokine signaling, endocrine changes et cetera. It has become abundantly clear, that psychological factors are need to be recognised in pain.
Biomedical models that are often used in Physiotherapy, such as Anatomy, Biomechanics and Pathoanatomy fall short in explaining some of the complex issues of pain, such as central sensitization.
The aim of Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) is to teach patients more about the pain they’re experiencing from a biological AND physiological perspective, embracing a biopsychosocial approach.
The focus should be on behavioural change, starting with the phrase "despite the pain..."; this can be achieved using for example graded exposure.