Passive segmental motion tests (PAIVM, PPIVM, and PIT) are widely used to investigate local mobility, stiffness, and symptom reproduction in people with low back pain (LBP).
Despite this fact, their validity and reliability has been a matter of debate. Additionally, previous reviews have failed to provide systematic evidence-based recommendations for their use.
A literature search yielded thirteen studies eligible for review which assessed the validity and reliability of the PAIVM, PPIVM, and PIT. Study risk of bias as assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies and Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies ranged from low to high.