Synthesis of best evidence learned that there is either insufficient or conflicting evidence for the use of specific exercise strategies for improving pain, function, general strength and proprioception. There is, however, limited evidence for specifically training the scapular stabilisers. No evidence was found that specific exercises could increase ROM.
A quantitative analysis was also performed. For neither pain nor function, a significant effect of specific exercises was found. Due to heterogeneity of the studies, pooling of data was not possible for outcome measures regarding strength, proprioception and ROM.
The authors state that inconsistencies and lack of methodological quality are limiting the conclusions that can be drawn based on the available evidence. Therefore, no recommendations are included either about exercise parameters (e.g., type, frequency, volume and intensity).