Scapular muscle-activation ratios during shoulder exercises

Which functional shoulder exercises elicit the most beneficial scapular-muscle activation ratios?

While the theoretical concept of altered scapular muscle balance in patients with shoulder injuries is generally accepted, and exercises are widely prescribed to improve scapular muscle strength and coordination, evidence on activation of the upper, middle and lower trapezius (UT, MT and LT, respectively) and serratus anterior (SA) remains inconclusive.


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