Pregnancy and childbirth are recognised as significant risk factors for urinary (UI) and faecal incontinence. Treatment options for UI include conservative therapies, such as pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), lifestyle changes and bladder training.
Pelvic floor muscle training can also be conducted prophylactically to prevent the development of urinary incontinence. There is high level evidence and international recommendations that PFMT should be the first-line management for urinary incontinence in adult women. Treatment options for faecal incontinence also include PFMT, along with lifestyle changes and bowel training. What is less clear is the most cost-effective way to deliver PFMT.